advance nmap

Advance usage of nmap | cheatsheet | How to use nmap ?

What is nmap ?

Nmap ("Network Mapper") is a free and open source utility for network discovery and security auditing. Many systems and network administrators also find it useful for tasks such as network inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime. Nmap uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, but works fine against single hosts. Nmap runs on all major computer operating systems, and official binary packages are available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X. In addition to the classic command-line Nmap executable, the Nmap suite includes an advanced GUI and results viewer (Zenmap), a flexible data transfer, redirection, and debugging tool (Ncat), a utility for comparing scan results (Ndiff), and a packet generation and response analysis tool (Nping).

Port specification options

Syntax Example Description
-p
nmap -p 23 172.16.1.1
Port scanning for specific port
-p
nmap -p 23-100 172.16.1.1
Port scanning for specific port range
-p
nmap -p U:110, T:23,443 172.16.1.1
U-UDP, T-TCP different port types scan
-p-
nmap -p- 172.16.1.1
Scan all ports from 1 to 65535
-p
nmap -p smtp,http 172.16.1.1
Port scan for specific protocals
-F
nmap -F 172.16.1.1
Fast port scan for speed up
-p "*"
Port scan using name
string
-r
nmap -r 172.16.1.1
Sequential port scan
--top-ports
nmap 192.168.1.1 --top-ports 2000
Port scan the top x ports
-p0-
nmap 192.168.1.1 -p0-
Leaving off end port in range makes the scan go through to port 65535

Scanning types of nmap

Syntax Example Description
-sS
nmap 172.16.1.1 -sS
TCP SYN port scan
-sT
nmap 172.16.1.1 -sT
TCP connect port scan
-sA
nmap 172.16.1.1 -sA
TCP ACK port scan
-sU
nmap 172.16.1.1 -sU
UDP port scan
-Sf
nmap 172.16.1.1 -Sf
TCP FIN scan
-sX
nmap 172.16.1.1 -sX
XMAS scan
-Sp
nmap 172.16.1.1 -Sp
Ping scan
-sA
nmap 172.16.1.1 -sA
TCP ACK scan
-Sl
nmap 192.168.1.1 -Sl
List scan
-sW
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sW
TCP Window port scan
-sM
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sM
TCP Maimon port scan

Host Discovery

Syntax Example Description
-sL
nmap 192.168.1.1-3 -sL
No Scan. List targets only
-sn
nmap 192.168.1.1/24 -sn
Disable port scanning
-Pn
nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -Pn
Disable host discovery. Port scan only
-PS
nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -PS22-25,80
TCP SYN discovery on port x. Port 80 by default
-PA
nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -PA22-25,80
TCP ACK discovery on port x. Port 80 by default
-PU
nmap 192.168.1.1-5 -PU53
UDP discovery on port x. Port 40125 by default
-PR
nmap 192.168.1.1-1/24 -PR
ARP discovery on local network
-n
nmap 192.168.1.1 -n
Never do DNS resolution

Target Specification

Syntax Example Description
-
nmap 192.168.1.1
Scan a single IP
-
nmap 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1
Scan specific IPs
-
nmap 192.168.1.1-254
Scan a range
-
nmap scanme.nmap.org
Scan a domain
-
nmap 192.168.1.0/24
Scan using CIDR notation
-iL
nmap -iL targets.txt
Scan targets from a file
-iR
nmap -iR 100
Scan 100 random hosts
--exclude
nmap --exclude 192.168.1.1
Exclude listed hosts

Service and Version Detection

Syntax Example Description
-sV
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV
Attempts to determine the version of the service running on port
-sV --version-intensity
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV --version-intensity 8
Intensity level 0 to 9. Higher number increases possibility of correctness
-sV --version-light
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV --version-light
Enable light mode. Lower possibility of correctness. Faster
-sV --version-all
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sV --version-all
Enable intensity level 9. Higher possibility of correctness. Slower
-A
nmap 192.168.1.1 -A
Enables OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute
-O
nmap 192.168.1.1 -O
Remote OS detection using TCP/IP stack fingerprinting
-O --osscan-limit
nmap 192.168.1.1 -O --osscan-limit
If at least one open and one closed TCP port are not found it will not try OS detection against host
-O --osscan-guess
nmap 192.168.1.1 -O --osscan-guess
Makes Nmap guess more aggressively
-O --max-os-tries
nmap 192.168.1.1 -O --max-os-tries 1
Set the maximum number x of OS detection tries against a target

Timing and Performance

Syntax Example Description
-T0
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T0
Paranoid (0) Intrusion Detection System evasion
-T1
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T1
Sneaky (1) Intrusion Detection System evasion
-T2
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T2
Polite (2) slows down the scan to use less bandwidth and use less target machine resources
-T3
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T3
Normal (3) which is default speed
-T4
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T4
Aggressive (4) speeds scans; assumes you are on a reasonably fast and reliable network
-T5
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T5
Insane (5) speeds scan; assumes you are on an extraordinarily fast network

NSE Scripts

Switch Examples Description
-sC
nmap 192.168.1.1 -sC
Scan with default NSE scripts. Considered useful for discovery and safe
--script default
nmap 192.168.1.1 --script default
Scan with default NSE scripts. Considered useful for discovery and safe
--script
nmap 192.168.1.1 --script=banner
Scan with a single script. Example banner
--script
nmap 192.168.1.1 --script=http*
Scan with a wildcard. Example http
--script
nmap 192.168.1.1 --script=http,banner
Scan with two scripts. Example http and banner
--script
nmap 192.168.1.1 --script "not intrusive"
Scan default, but remove intrusive scripts
--script-args
nmap --script snmp-sysdescr --script-args snmpcommunity=admin 192.168.1.1
NSE script with arguments
--max-rate
100
Send packets no faster than per second

Examples

Command Description
nmap -Pn --script=http-sitemap-generator scanme.nmap.org
http site map generator
nmap -n -Pn -p 80 --open -sV -vvv --script banner,http-title -iR 1000
Fast search for random web servers
nmap -Pn --script=dns-brute domain.com
Brute forces DNS hostnames guessing subdomains
nmap -n -Pn -vv -O -sV --script smb-enum*,smb-ls,smb-mbenum,smb-os-discovery,smb-s*,smb-vuln*,smbv2* -vv 192.168.1.1
Safe SMB scripts to run
nmap --script whois* domain.com
Whois query
nmap -p80 --script http-unsafe-output-escaping scanme.nmap.org
Detect cross site scripting vulnerabilities.
nmap -p80 --script http-sql-injection scanme.nmap.org
Check for SQL injections

Firewall / IDS Evasion and Spoofing

Switch Examples Description
-f
nmap 192.168.1.1 -f
Requested scan (including ping scans) use tiny fragmented
--mtu
nmap 192.168.1.1 --mtu 32
Set your own offset size
-D
nmap -D 192.168.1.101,192.168.1.102,192.168.1.103,192.168.1.23 192.168.1.1
Send scans from spoofed IPs
-D
nmap -D decoy-ip1,decoy-ip2,your-own-ip,decoy-ip3,decoy-ip4 remote-host-ip
Above example explained
-S
nmap -S www.microso
Scan Facebook from Microso
-g
nmap -g 53 192.168.1.1
Use given source port number
--proxies
nmap --proxies http://192.168.1.1:8080, http://192.168.1.2:8080 192.168.1.1
Relay connections through HTTP/SOCKS4 proxies
--data-length
map --data-length 200 192.168.1.1
Appends random data to sent packets

Example IDS Evasion command

nmap -f -t 0 -n -Pn --data-length 200 -D 192.168.1.101,192.168.1.102,192.168.1.103,192.168.1.23 192.168.1.1

Options for output of map

Switch Example Description
-oN
nmap 192.168.1.1 -oN normal.file
Normal output to the file normal file.
-oX
nmap 192.168.1.1 -oX xml.file
XML output to the file xml.file
-oG
nmap 192.168.1.1 -oG grep.file
Grepable output to the file grep.file
-oA
nmap 192.168.1.1 -oA results
Output in the three major formats at once
-oG -
nmap 192.168.1.1 -oG -
Grepable output to screen. -oN -, -oX - also usable
--append-output
nmap 192.168.1.1 -oN file.file --append-output
Append a scan to a previous scan file
-v
nmap 192.168.1.1 -v
Increase the verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)
-d
nmap 192.168.1.1 -d
Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)
--reason
nmap 192.168.1.1 --reason
Display the reason a port is in a particular state, same output as -vv
--open
nmap 192.168.1.1 --open
Only show open (or possibly open) ports
--packet-trace
nmap 192.168.1.1 -T4 --packet-trace
Show all packets sent and received
--iflist
nmap --iflist
Shows the host interfaces and routes
--resume
nmap --resume results.file
Resume a scan

Helpful Nmap Output examples

Command Desfription
nmap -p80 -sV -oG - --open 192.168.1.1/24 | grep open
Scan for web servers and grep to show which IPs are running web servers
nmap -iR 10 -n -oX out.xml | grep "Nmap" | cut -d " " -f5 > live-hosts.txt
Generate a list of the IPs of live hosts
nmap -iR 10 -n -oX out2.xml | grep "Nmap" | cut -d " " -f5 >> live-hosts.txt
Append IP to the list of live hosts
ndiff scanl.xml scan2.xml
Compare output from nmap using the ndiff
xsltproc nmap.xml -o nmap.html
Convert nmap xml files to html files
grep " open " results.nmap | sed -r 's/ +/ /g' | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn | less
Reverse sorted list of how o

Other Useful Nmap Commands

Command Desfription
nmap -iR 10 -PS22-25,80,113,1050,35000 -v -sn
Discovery only on ports x, no port scan
nmap 192.168.1.1-1/24 -PR -sn -vv
Arp discovery only on local network, no port scan
nmap -iR 10 -sn -traceroute
Traceroute to random targets, no port scan
nmap 192.168.1.1-50 -sL --dns-server 192.168.1.1
Query the Internal DNS for hosts, list targets only
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